Finding Inspiration for Your Next Blog Post

Every company person knows the fact a fruitful company depends considerably on the existence of an audio advertising strategy. In the absence of this type of strategy, all of your other initiatives are essentially useless. This really is all the more true when it comes to online organizations, as your competition is fiercer on the Internet. We could get as far as expressing that your Web company will quickly arrive at an end if you crash to produce great use of all assets that you’ve at your disposal when it comes to generating quality traffic to your online site.

Your advertising strategy ought to be a complex one and includes a variety of search engine optimization services, such for instance article distribution, directory submissions, cultural bookmarking, and website posting. These are some of the top ways to promote a web page and the expense of such seo services are nothing set alongside the advantages they bring. Only consider what advantages would derive from having thousands as well as thousands of prospective customers visiting your website every day and you’ll certainly concur that search engine optimization services are an investment worth making. Guest post

An SEO post is one of the most effective ways of generating long-haul traffic, particularly if applicable material is submitted on private blogs. Needless to say that your freshly produced website is likely to be found by key search motors faster than it would be if you had been to only wait for that to take place without resorting to any advertising strategies. Moreover, a seo post will also support improve your position with the most important search motors, which, will change into more targeted traffic to your online site.

Once you’ve handled to have continuous quality traffic to your website, you decide to help keep your guests finding their way back, but more regularly than perhaps not, getting to the stage where you’ve to show unexpected customers into devoted types is probably the most difficult task. And this really is where each one of these seo strategies, including website submitting, comes into place. However, a seo post is not a thing that everybody can do. Wherever you post your article is of the utmost value and therefore is the caliber of the text and its relevance for search engines. Along with all this, website submitting can be a really time-consuming task. Therefore, it’s recommended that you make use of a professional website submitting service.

A professional website submitting support could be the surest method to take advantage of all of the advantages that derive from applying all of the advertising possibilities that the Web provides. SEO specialists can create articles that can be abundant with applicable keywords and post them manually on tens or a huge selection of private quality blogs. Quite simply, an excellent website submitting support can help raise your rank with key search motors and create targeted traffic to your online site.

A seo post is really a cheap, yet equally effective alternative to an expensive advertising campaign. It can be a really powerful advertising software, offered it’s employed by skilled seo specialists. Important material and submitting on well-ranked websites is something that only a professional website submitting support can provide.

Sport Boxing – One of the oldest forms of combat

There are many types of boxing but sport boxing is the most popular. Boxing is basically punching or fistfighting with your hands covered in gloves. Sport boxing, as the name suggests, is considered a sport. It is included in the Olympics. Some people practice the discipline to improve their fitness, or as a supplement to another self-defense method. Boxing is the oldest form known of fighting, so it’s not surprising that this discipline is also used in other forms martial arts.

Sport Boxing: A History

Sumerians who lived in the 3rd millennium BC recorded Gervonta Davis fist fighting. However, rules were introduced in the game in 1473 to make clear winners and losers. The most popular of all the rules is the one that was established in 1867, the “Marques of Queensbury Rules”. Today, professional and amateur boxers fight within their weight classes. Time limitations were enforced and points were used for determining a winner in the event of no knockdown. This was also when the traditional straight, stiff boxing stance was replaced by a bent position with the hands close to the face. Boxing is a well-regulated sport with several sanctioning and governing bodies. These include the International Boxing Federation and World Boxing Council.

Sport Boxing Discipline

Sport boxing is a sport that involves participants competing for prizes. Amateur boxing is played at the Olympics and collegiate levels. Participants wear protective headgear, as opposed to professional fighters. Muhammad Ali, who was crowned Heavyweight Champion, is perhaps the most well-known professional boxer.

Different styles are used by different boxers, and not all boxers use the same techniques. The basic boxing style can be divided into three main categories: brawler, out-fighter and in-fighter.

Sport boxing is a popular sport, but it can also be used to self-defense. Boxers are trained to strike fast and hard, know where to hit and how to strike. They are also taught to take hits, strengthen their muscles and increase their endurance. It’s not surprising that sports boxing is so popular. Anyone can learn about the components of a fighter’s stance, footwork and types of punches by looking online.

Sports Scrapbook

It is summer. You can expect to play soccer, tennis and baseball this summer. Our generation has never been so active in sports, and we’ve gotten so much of it as entertainment. We should make a scrapbook to document all the sports we enjoy and those we don’t. This article is about documenting all your sports memories.

Scrapbooking enthusiasts love sports. As you design and place embellishments on your scrapbook What sports page, you can feel the energy and competitive spirit of a match. Your sporty side will come out!

Start with your favorite sports when creating your Sports Scrapbook. Your scrapbook should be focused on tennis if you enjoy it. If you’re an athlete, having one scrapbook is a great idea. However, you can only keep one sport in your scrapbook.

Begin with the basics of the sport. This includes information about who started the sport, where it originated, what the various events were, how it became popular, who won the big championships or set the world record. And, of course, why the sport is important to you. Make sure to include your favorite athlete and team!

Let your creativity flow and have fun with the pages to come. Consider a variety of pictures when choosing which photos to upload. Photos of an athlete fighting, an athlete receiving a penalty or calling for a time-out, or of you standing at the hotdog stand. You can also add captions or shout-outs from games to your pictures. It’s hard to forget the “BOOs” and “YESs!” “, the ‘HURRAYs!” The “HURRAYs!” are not to be missed. This will give your page more style and magnify the theme.

If you have memorabilia to add. Attach the ticket stubs from all the games you watched, the brochures for the hotels where you stayed when the championships were played, autographs of your favorite athletes, limited edition napkins and stickers as well as team stickers, jersey replicas, newspaper clippings, or other items that you have accumulated over the years.

Your scrapbook can be enhanced by including sports tradition from your family. Include cheers that have become your family’s signature. Don’t forget mention how it came into being and describe how the sport connects you as a family.

Your sports scrapbook is not only entertaining, but also informative. This scrapbook will be something you’re proud to display and something that you can pass on. You will have this as a collectible item that your grandson would be proud to own.

This will encourage your kids to start their own sports journal while they’re still young. Many kids begin their childhood playing basketball, baseball, or football in their own backyard. Your kids’ sports growth can be documented in the scrapbook.

Johns Hopkins Psychiatry In The Media

Facing an existential crisis can be difficult and can take awhile to get over. Usually the individual needs to make some sort of changes in life for their existential outlook to change. When life seems void of meaning, people tend to question why they are even living and/or the entire purpose of their existence. This is often referred to as an “existential crisis” and can be difficult to overcome because people dealing with this issue often think themselves in circles of logic as to why there is no point to life.

“Anything that puts a barrier between a potential customer and a gun gets resistance from the industry,” said Paul Nestadt, an assistant professor of psychiatry at the John Hopkins School of Medicine. “And yet study after study shows that any regulation that limits access to firearms decreases suicide rates.” “I think that caffeine is so common and so ingrained in our culture, and daily habits, that we often don’t think about it as a potential source of problems,” said Mary M. Sweeney, an assistant professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Dr. Shannon Barnett, an assistant professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Johns Hopkins, shares tips to help keep kids busy mentally and physically while at home during the coronavirus pandemic. The coronavirus pandemic is impacting everyone including individuals battling addiction.

He put on a sleep mask and headphones outfitted with a playlist of classical music, was given a dose of psilocybin, and off he went. Researchers at USC,Johns Hopkinsand the University of Washington used Medicare data to track dementia diagnoses of nearly a quarter of a million people over five years. The team found 85% of individuals first diagnosed with dementia were diagnosed by a non-dementia specialist physician, usually a primary care doctor, and an “unspecified dementia” diagnosis was common.

Matthew Johnson, a professor of psychiatry at Johns Hopkins Medicine, explains what a drug called the devil’s breath does to the mind. Recent research at universities including Johns Hopkins, Imperial College in London and the University of California, Los Angeles, have shown promising results of psilocybin therapy on depression, PTSD and addiction. Continued research by institutions like Johns Hopkins, London’s Imperial College, and MAPS are revealing that psychedelic drugs like MDMA and psilocybin have profound medicinal potential. In November, Johns Hopkins published what to do with cbd oil results from its latest study of adults with major depressive disorder finding that two doses of the psilocybin combined with psychotherapy, produced “large, rapid, and sustained antidepressant effects” on patients. Four weeks after the session, half of study participants —13 patients out of 24 — were still in remission. In this opinion piece, Dr. Susan Lehmann, Dr. Robert Roca and co-authors make the case for national education mandates from accreditation organizations and congressional support to require enhanced education of all clinicians who care for older adults.

The funding of the Johns Hopkins Center for Psychedelic & Consciousness Research with private donations “may well be a game changer in the understanding of the efficacy of in psychiatric disorders and the neurobiology of complex psychological processes such as empathy, mystical experiences, and creativity,” . Postpartum depression, a major depressive episode, is the most common complication of childbirth, according to Dr. Jennifer Payne, director of the Women’s Mood Disorder Center at Johns Hopkins Hospital. This article mentions the work of Johns Hopkins psilocybin researchers Roland Griffiths and Matthew Johnson. Ferriss says he’s donated upwards of $3 million to support the underlying science and has corralled millions more from wealthy friends. They’ve kicked in half of the $17 million grant to create the Johns Hopkins Center for Psychedelic & Consciousness Research, the first U.S. research center of its kind.

He cites the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Prevention . Several academic groups are studying psychedelics as treatments for a wide variety of diseases. Last year, Johns Hopkins pulled in $17 million in funding to open the new Center for Psychedelic and Consciousness Research, which is studying the effect of the drugs on brain function, memory, learning and mood. Matthew Johnson, a psychiatrist at Johns how long does cbd oil last once opened Hopkins University who co-authored a 2016 landmark psilocybin trial, says that while cancer-related psychological distress is devastating and common, it’s also poorly understood. Cancer-related distress is not in the DSM, the so-called “psychiatric Bible.” There’s a huge unmet clinical need, Johnson explains. America’s attitudes about psychedelics have changed, and it looks like the laws around them will change, too.

In an analysis published last October in an issue of Neuropharmacology, a medical journal focused on neuroscience, researchers from Johns Hopkins University recommended that psilocybin be reclassified for medical use – arguing its benefits in helping treat PTSD, depression and anxiety and helping people stop smoking. Neurology Advisor interviewed Jennifer M. Coughlin MD, associate professor in the department of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, for additional insights regarding and the results of the Boston University Research CTE Center study. In an interview, Paul S. Nestadt, MD, said the findings were not surprising. “The proportion [56%] of psychiatry and psychology abstracts which found to contain spin is similar to that found in broader studies of all biomedical literature in previous reviews,” said Dr. Nestadt, assistant professor in the department of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore.

There it can act on mu-opioid receptors, says Eric Strain, director of the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment and Research at Johns Hopkins University. “Once the drug binds to those opioid receptors and activates them, it sets off a cascade of psychological and physical actions; it produces euphoric effects, but it also produces respiratory-depressing effects,” Strain says. “About 5 percent of homicides are committed by someone who has a serious mental illness,” said Paul Nestadt, a psychiatrist at Hopkins Hospital.

In a small pilot study from Johns Hopkins University, researchers found that psilocybin therapy significantly improved abstaining from smoking over a 12-month follow-up period. Matthew Johnson, PhD, associate professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, led that study. According to him, psilocybin also has potential to treat other substance use disorders, including alcohol and cocaine addiction. Sleep disturbances are a frequent complaint of patients on methadone, with 70% to 85% reporting poor sleep quality. However, less is known about the effects of newer opioid use disorder treatments on sleep, noted the researchers, led by Patrick H. Finan, PhD, associate professor of psychiatry and behavioral science at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland.

That’s why it’s important that you choose your companions carefully for this journey, and make sure that those nearest you are there for support and health down a path of hope, and not despair. Any new journey is difficult, but the first steps are the most difficult, and the further you walk the easier it gets. It is OK to be selfish and tell others “No”, and to distance yourself from those that bring their unpleasantness into your life, and to give yourself more time for others that provide you more support and who nurture your independence. The selfishness that you think you are feeling may not be the first step into oblivion, but instead a natural feeling that your body is sending you to tell yourself that you are unhappy and need to simply take that first step on a new path of changing your life. Simply put, instead of risking your own eternal hell through suicide, or instead of subjecting yourself to your own hell on earth, the selfish feelings at the root of suicide, the desire for life to be better than it is, should be not ridiculed but instead nourished.

Matthew Johnson, professor of psychiatry at Johns Hopkins University, has been conducting experimental researching into psychopharmacology since 1996. In May, during a panel discussion at the Future of Psychedelics Summit, Johnson said that psilocybin, and psychedelics in general, can help people see the big picture in ways that can lead to life-altering epiphanies. After a 50-year hiatus, psychedelic drugs are undergoing a research renaissance. Beyond the broad mental health impacts linked to the sudden disruption of lives and widespread isolation, coronavirus-related restrictions created specific factors that could put people with eating disorders at increased risk, said Cooper, a postdoctoral fellow at Johns Hopkins University . One of the earliest studies to come out of the so-called psychedelic renaissance was conducted at Johns Hopkins University in 2016, and sought to examine how psilocybin would affect depression and anxiety in patients suffering from life-threatening cancers.

But I like the behavioral tips offered by Dr. Gerald Nestadt, director of the Johns Hopkins OCD clinic, in an issue of The Johns Hopkins Depression & Anxiety Bulletin. “The average man refrains from sex with a child not only because he’s a moral person but also because a child does not tempt him sexually,” said Berlin, founder of the Sexual Disorders Clinic at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. “Ephebophilia is what dosage for cbd oil for dogs a condition in which a person is attracted not to prepubescent children but to children or adolescents around the time of puberty, basically teenagers. Most men can find adolescents attractive sexually, although, of course, that doesn’t mean they’re going to act on it.” Previous work with and Alzheimer’s led by the University of Toronto and Johns Hopkins Medicine focused on stimulating memory circuits.

Rather than going back to your old behaviors repeatedly, she recommends a reset. The results echo the findings of the handful of very small placebo-controlled studies, says Johns Hopkins University psychedelics researcher Albert Garcia-Romeu, who was not involved with the work. But the new study was much larger and had more long-term observations, he says.

Both studies will gain insight into the program’s costs and long-term sustainability. Combined, they involve 647 people with dementia and an equal number of family members in central Maryland. A medical research team from the school, led by psychiatry and behavioral sciences professor Matthew Johnson, partnered up on a study with the nonprofit DanceSafe, which tested samples of concertgoers’ drugs for free from July 2010 through July 2015. …according to Ken Stoller, a psychiatrist at Johns Hopkins Hospital who specializes in addiction psychiatry.

In many cases, people facing an existential crisis consider suicide because they feel as if their entire existence is void of purpose. Most people experience bullying to some degree while growing up and going through school – it’s an inevitable part of life. Bullying can have a profound effect on the way people think and how they feel. Most people that are bullied end up feeling extremely depressed, worthless, and hopeless to change their situation.

Because they are increasingly prevalent and can be much more lethal on overdose than other drugs or medicines, we might compare them to firearms,” said Dr. Paul Nestadt, assistant professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Johns Hopkins University. What the study can’t say is who is likely to attempt suicide in the next 30 days, Nestadt noted. There is not a lot of evidence on how well nonpharmacologic treatments work to treat sickle cell disease-related pain, and it can be difficult to get people access to these treatments, said C. Patrick Carroll, MD, director of psychiatric services, Sickle Cell Center for Adults, associate professor of psychiatry, Johns Hopkins Medicine.

Phone Review – The BlackBerry PlayBook

The initial type of applications to keep in mind as it pertains to increasing your living production is apps related to operating and obtaining your path around. They are GPS apps, and they primarily change your smart phone in to a small portable GPS device. These programs enable you to simply plug in your local area and you will be able to see regional eateries as well as the addresses of your pals and family.

Bing Maps Navigation is an ideal request that will help you complete only that. That is essentially a smart telephone version of the wildly common web site on the internet that lets people select in guidelines and look for locations. Google’s Maps Request offers satellite and road views that different mobile apps do not provide.

Company programs for the LG Thrill will also be extremely important since they can support people stay structured and produce living much easier for us. Organizational programs may contain apps that allow you to with scheduling and conference sessions and deadlines, as well as applications at that help you add up calendars and even develop your own personal to accomplish lists through the touchscreen and typing efficiency of the phones. It is becoming more difficult to remain along with things today in modern life, as most people have so many different obligations to have a tendency to, so when you can change your cell phone into an ally to help you keep connected and current with modern living, then it’s value taking advantage of.  Shycocan

Mobile Shopping has also become remarkably popular and that’s why there are lots of looking applications obtainable in the Application Market. Most of these applications may give you recommendations and handles and results to the closest malls, retailers, supermarkets, and other areas of contemporary life that you may be enthusiastic about locating in the real world. You may also use such programs to see a number of reviews of shops that will allow you to figure out which keep you are interested in visiting or getting things from.

As you will see, there are several features concerning the LG Thrill can be advantageous to day-to-day living through a number of applications, including programs for operating, buying, and work. Along the way, it would not be considered a poor strategy to look in to some extras such as a data wire, an incident, monitor guard, and a Wireless headset. With a information wire you will have a way to move documents from your own PC to your telephone and the Wireless headset enables you talk hands-free while you travel which is often very advantageous to your safety.

their residence to review if the storage door closed. Acquire some little bit of mind and do not worry about turning everything off before you leave. You are able to turn everything off without actually being there. Hook up to the consumer program, shut storage door and check always any components you may have forgotten. A smart home will also help stop you on-time.

Simplify your house and operate the Home Theater music, video, and several other parts all in one remote control. One remote control is an easy and convenient solution to perform music in virtually any space at anytime. If you prefer audio, use the multi-room sound feature and balance the acoustics in your home. You may be environmentally friendly and enjoy an ideal atmosphere in every room with lighting control. Dimming your lights uses less energy, therefore saving you money. Enjoy control from everywhere with a good phone or net connection. Acquire some bit of mind and monitor your house security while on the road.

Gambling With The Best

Gambling today is one of the most used leisure activities worldwide. Would you not want to create a few quick bucks at a chance? The adrenaline rush indeed makes it an addiction for many. Talking of casinos reminds me of just one popular online casino, which also is one of our favorites.

William Hill plc is among the largest bookmakers in the UK. It had been founded by William Hill when gambling was regarded as illegal in Britain. The organization operates worldwide, employs many people, and has offices in the UK, Ireland, and Gibraltar.

Online casinos today, besides offering phone and internet betting on various sports, including football and cricket, William Hill provides casino games, skill games, bingo, and poker online. Although it is engaged in betting, it prohibits any gambling by any underage person by training its workforce for a reason that direction.

One can play at some of the reliable casinos and get a memorable time. Today, William Hill Casino and several other casinos have a storehouse of several games and are eminent for their fair play. It’s specialized in providing quality gaming service to those who desire to play casino games online with the same experience as a real casino. Whatever game you choose, be it table games or card games, casinos today are created to meet every player’s gaming needs.

Apart from high-class casino games, players have been rewarded a welcome new player bonus, and it continues increasing with increased and more kumpulan situs pkv games terbaik and betting. Referring your website to your friend will even earn you some reward. Not just this, the mode of payment you choose will even bring in deposits to your account. You can find promotions and bonuses available constantly so that players derive the maximum benefit out of these.

The amount of loyalty and participation players show to your website also makes them eligible for certain special rewards and earn them points based on where they can play further. As you progress to raised levels, chances of hitting the bigger jackpot also increase.

For those enthusiastic about online betting in sports, William Hill allows you to bet on many games like football, baseball, basketball, boxing, golf, handball, ice hockey, motor racing, horse racing, rugby, volleyball, snooker, and many more. It includes updated information regarding the different games that can be scheduled to take place and the game’s progress. Through its broadcast system, it telecasts live matches and betting sessions at all its authorized betting centers.

Today, there are numerous competitors, but William Hill Poker is rated at an advanced level about online poker playing in the gaming industry. The mix of superior software and excellent customer service makes this online poker play one of the industry’s best. Players can earn countless dollars and enjoy the advantages of numerous bonus offers and jackpots.

Whether it’s for gambling in sports, casino games, or poker games, casinos that way of William Hill makes the ability a fascinating and lucrative one, with people wanting in the future back for more and more.

Protect Your Assets With the Right Business Insurance Coverage

A single ignite may set a store on fire. A straightforward slide may result in a lengthy and high priced legislation suit. You can awaken the next day and your corporate car is not on their parking slot. If there is one thing every organization operator knows, it’s the fact there is nothing certain and it’s crucial to cut back risk to ab muscles minimum.

Many organization homeowners belong to the lure of maybe not getting the appropriate organization insurance coverage. Let’s dissect that record further. It is inadequate to ensure your business. Commercial organization insurance must certanly be your failsafe. Meaning, your company cover must certanly be something which encompasses all probable scenarios.

Distinguishing All of the Risks Connected with Your Business

The first step in deciding the right Business insurance for the enterprise is conducting a thorough audit of your whole organization procedures from start to finish. Ensure that number stone is remaining unturned. If you’re the dog owner, there’s a high probability that you may not know about everything that is happening in your day-to-day organization procedures, so it is most readily useful to create in all of your managers along with the key employees to make sure that you don’t miss anything.

Understanding the Different Forms of Business Insurance

You will find four significant extensive kinds of professional organization insurance.

The very first category is the absolute most frequent – organization home insurance. Simply put, this type of insurance will give you monetary reimbursements, if your company houses (i.e. Your workplace, your machineries, etc.) were damaged or destroyed.

The 2nd general classification of organization insurance is responsibility insurance. If you hurt an individual or damaged a house through the perform of your company, this type of insurance will take care of that. Like, if you’re a cafe operator, and someone slipped within your cafe as a result of poured drink, you can use your responsibility insurance to cover for the victim’s hospitalisation expense.

Next may be the car insurance which is fundamentally much like your own personal car insurance. It will cover the problems inflicted in your company-owned cars including these resulting from collision accidents.

Finally, the umbrella professional organization insurance doesn’t play a particular role. Instead, it stretches the restricts of your other insurance policies. It are often used to cover other activities beyond those that are covered by your responsibility, home and car insurance guidelines

Enough Investing Towards Your Insurance Policies

By determining most of the places in your procedures that’ll trigger economic losses to your organization, you will have the ability to identify which kinds of insurance you need. Aside from selecting an insurance category, you moreover need to make sure that you’re trading enough towards these organization insurance policies.

Like, if you work a resort organization with several luxury cars to transport your visitors, you must invest heavily on car insurance and the policy you must get needs to have a higher premium. You can’t have a $30,000 BMW luxury sedan and only have $5,000 worth of car insurance.

Secret Behind Technology Blogging: A Best Niche In Blogging

It is no secret that there is a secret behind technology blogging; it is one of the best niches in blogging. Blogging about technology is one of the best ways to get ahead in modern society. In fact, technology blogging is the best niche in blogging these days for anyone who wants to start up a successful business.

If you plan to create a new business or any successful business ventures, one of the best ways to do so is to consider the technology niche in blogging.

The Secrets of Niche Blogging: Technology

These days there are so many technologies to choose from, it’s hard not to blog about them. Some popular examples of technology blogs include:

iPhone how to guides and tutorials

Information and technology news

Technology updates and rumors

The latest technological breakthroughs

Android

Windows and Mac

Technology Editorials and Opinion Pieces

Technology blogs are the perfect accompaniment to a day job although many people find running a niche technology blog can be exciting and take up a bit of time on the side.

How To Run A Successful Secret Technology Niche Blogging Business

It doesn’t take very long to get a niche technology blog up and running. All one need to do is set up a blog account, which is easily done through WordPress or any other free blogging module.

Typically it helps to add a new blog post at least once or twice a week, if not daily. This helps to compete with ultra high-ranking websites. The technology niche is one of the simplest niches to write about.

There are tons of information readily available about most forms of technology. There is always something new in the news about the latest iPhone, or what some star or celebrity has done with their Mac, or latest technology device.

The other approach to technology is writing about how you made money using technology. Most people want nothing more than to learn about how they can make money using technology. And, that is essentially what you do when you create a niche technology blog… make money using technology.

Another great niche in the technology arena is a blog focusing on general technological advances and information. However, the competition for a niche that broad however, may be very high, especially when it comes to purchasing AdSense revenue. If you can narrow your technology niche down significantly, to something very narrow, then you will reap the benefits.

Good, narrow niches are well thought out. Some examples may include very detailed subjects and niche topics, including:

iPhone covers and cases

Android Travel Phones

Mac laptop covers and cases

Windows technological breakthroughs

The more narrow the subject material, the more likely you are to select keywords that bring in targeted audience members. There is also less likely to be competition for your keywords. You want to pay as little as possible to attract AdSense revenues. This is how to make the most bang for your buck when blogging on technology.

Remember that the secret is out; technology is a great niche to take advantage of. People are constantly seeking new and exciting information about technology. So discover the areas you can write better about, and dig in. Discover for yourself the secret behind technology blogging and find a good niche in the technology blogging that you and your business can get benefit from.

Leaping Into the 6th Technology Revolution

We’re at risk of missing out on some of the most profound opportunities offered by the technology revolution that has just begun.

Yet many are oblivious to the signs and are in danger of watching this become a period of noisy turmoil rather than the full-blown insurrection needed to launch us into a green economy. What we require is not a new spinning wheel, but fabrics woven with nanofibers that generate solar power. To make that happen, we need a radically reformulated way of understanding markets, technology, financing, and the role of government in accelerating change. But will we understand the opportunities before they disappear?

Seeing the Sixth Revolution for What It Is

We are seven years into the beginning of what analysts at BofA Merrill Lynch Global Research call the Sixth Revolution. A table by Carlotta Perez, which was presented during a recent BofA Merrill Lynch Global Research luncheon hosted by Robert Preston and Steven Milunovich, outlines the revolutions that are unexpected in their own time that lead to the one in which we find ourselves.

 

  • 1771: Mechanization and improved water wheels
  • 1829: Development of steam for industry and railways
  • 1875: Cheap steel, availability of electricity, and the use of city gas
  • 1908: Inexpensive oil, mass-produced internal combustion engine vehicles, and universal electricity
  • 1971: Expansion of information and tele-communications
  • 2003: Cleantech and biotech

 

The Vantage of Hindsight

Looking back at 1971, we know that Intel’s introduction of the microprocessor marked the beginning of a new era. But in that year, this meant little to people watching Mary Tyler Moore and The Partridge Family, or listening to Tony Orlando & Dawn and Janis Joplin. People would remember humanity’s first steps on the Moon, opening relations between US and China, perhaps the successful completion of the Human Genome Project to 99.99% accuracy, and possibly the birth of Prometea, the first horse cloned by Italian scientists.

 

According to Ben Weinberg, Partner, Element Partners, “Every day, we see American companies with promising technologies that are unable to deploy their products because of a lack of debt financing. By filling this gap, the government will ignite the mass deployment of innovative technologies, allowing technologies ranging from industrial waste heat to pole-mounted solar PV to prove their economics and gain credibility in the debt markets.” 

 

Flying beneath our collective radar was the first floppy disk drive by IBM, the world’s first e-mail sent by Ray Tomlinson, the launch of the first laser printer by Xerox PARC and the Cream Soda Computer by Bill Fernandez and Steve Wozniak (who would found the Apple Computer company with Steve Jobs a few years later). 

Times have not changed that much. It’s 2011 and many of us face a similar disconnect with the events occurring around us. We are at the equivalent of 1986, a year on the cusp of the personal computer and the Internet fundamentally changing our world. 1986 was also the year that marked the beginning of a major financial shift into new markets. Venture Capital (VC) experienced its most substantial finance-raising season, with approximately $750 million, and the NASDAQ was established to help create a market for these companies.

Leading this charge was Kleiner Perkins Caulfield & Beyers (KPCB), a firm that turned technical expertise into possibly the most successful IT venture capital firm in Silicon Valley. The IT model looked for a percentage of big successes to offset losses: an investment like the $8 million in Cerent, which was sold to Cisco Systems for $6.9 billion, could make up for a lot of great ideas that didn’t quite make it.

Changing Financial Models

But the VC model that worked so well for information and telecommunications doesn’t work in the new revolution. Not only is the financing scale of the cleantech revolution orders of magnitude larger than the last, this early in the game even analysts are struggling to see the future.

Steven Milunovich, who hosted the BofA Merrill Lynch Global Research lunch, remarked that each revolution has an innovation phase which may last for as long as 25 years, followed by an implementation phase of another 25. Most money is made in the first 20 years, so real players want to get in early. But the question is: Get in where, for how much and with whom?

There is still market scepticism and uncertainty about the staying power of the clean energy revolution. Milunovich estimates that many institutional investors don’t believe in global warming, and adopt a “wait and see” attitude complicated by government impasse on energy security legislation. For those who are looking at these markets, their motivation ranges from concerns about oil scarcity, supremacy in the “new Sputnik” race, the shoring up of homeland security and – for some – a concern about the effects of climate change. Many look askance at those who see that we are in the midst of a fundamental change in how we produce and use energy. Milunovich, for all these reasons, is “cautious in the short term, bullish on the long.”

The Valley of Death

Every new technology brings with it needs for new financing. In the sixth revolution, with budget needs 10 times those of IT, the challenge is moving from idea to prototype to commercialization. The Valley of Death, as a recent Bloomberg New Energy Finance whitepaper, Crossing the Valley of Death pointed out, is the gap between technology creation and commercial maturity.

But some investors and policy makers continue to hope that private capital will fuel this gap, much as it did the last. They express concern over the debt from government programs like the stimulus funds (American Recovery and Reinvestment Act) which have invested millions in new technologies in the clean energy sector, as well as helping states with rebuilding infrastructure and other projects. They question why the traditional financing models, which made the United States the world leader in information technology and telecommunications, can’t be made to work today, if the Government would just get out of the way.

But analysts from many sides of financing believe that government support, of some kind, is essential to move projects forward, because cleantech and biotech projects require a much larger input of capital in order to get to commercialization. This gap not only affects commercialization, but is also affecting investments in new technologies, because financial interests are concerned that their investment might not see fruition – get to commercial scale.

How new technologies are radically different from the computer revolution.

Infrastructure complexity

This revolution is highly dependent on an existing – but aging – energy infrastructure. Almost 40 years after the start of the telecommunications revolution, we are still struggling with a communications infrastructure that is fragmented, redundant, and inefficient. Integrating new sources of energy, and making better use of what we have, is an even more complex – and more vital – task.

According to “Crossing the Valley of Death,” the Bloomberg New Energy Finance Whitepaper,

 

“The events of the past few years confirm that it is only with the public sector’s help that the Commercialization Valley of Death can be addressed, both in the short and the long term. Only public institutions have ‘public benefits’ obligations and the associated mandated risk-tolerance for such classes of investments, along with the capital available to make a difference at scale. Project financiers have shown they are willing to pick up the ball and finance the third, 23rd, and 300th project that uses that new technology. It is the initial technology risk that credit committees and investment managers will not tolerate.” 

 

Everything runs on fuel and energy, from our homes to our cars to our industries, schools, and hospitals. Most of us have experienced the disconnect we feel when caught in a blackout: “The air-conditioner won’t work so I guess I’ll turn on a fan,” only to realize we can’t do either. Because energy is so vital to every aspect of our economy, federal, state and local entities regulate almost every aspect of how energy is developed, deployed, and monetized. Wind farm developers face a patchwork quilt of municipal, county, state and federal regulations in getting projects to scale. 

Incentives from government sources, as well as utilities, pose both an opportunity and a threat: the market rises and falls in direct proportion to funding and incentives. Navigating these challenges takes time and legal expertise: neither of which are in abundant supply to entrepreneurs.

Development costs

Though microchips are creating ever-smaller electronics, cleantech components – such as wind turbines and photovoltaics – are huge. They can’t be developed in a garage, like Hewlett and Packard’s first oscilloscope. A new generation of biofuels that utilizes nanotechnology isn’t likely to take place out of a dorm room, as did Michael Dell’s initial business selling customized computers. What this means for sixth revolution projects is that they have much larger funding needs, at much earlier stages.

Stepping up and supporting innovation, universities – and increasingly corporations – are partnering with early stage entrepreneurs. They are providing technology resources, such as laboratories and technical support, as well as management expertise in marketing, product development, government processes, and financing. Universities get funds from technology transfer arrangements, while corporations invest in a new technologies, expanding their product base, opening new businesses, or providing cost-benefit and risk-analysis of various approaches.

But even with such help, venture capital and other private investors are needed to augment costs that cannot be born alone. These investors look to some assurance that projects will produce revenue in order to return the original investment. So concerns over the Valley of Death affects even early stage funding.

Time line to completion

So many of us balk at two year contracts for our cell phones that there is talk of making such requirements illegal. But energy projects, by their size and complexity, look out over years, if not decades. Commercial and industrial customers look to spread their costs over ten to twenty years, and contracts cover contingencies like future business failure, the sale of properties, or the prospect of renovations that may affect the long term viability of the original project.

Kevin Walsh, managing director and head of Power and Renewable Energy at GE Energy Financial Services states, “GE Energy Financial Services supports the creation of CEDA or a similar institution because it would expand the availability of low-cost capital to the projects and companies in which we invest, and it would help expand the market for technology supplied by other GE businesses.”

Michael Holman, analyst for Lux Research, noted that a $25 million investment in Google morphed into $1.7 billion 5 years later. In contrast, a leading energy storage company started with a $300 million investment, and 9 years later valuation remains uncertain. These are the kinds of barriers that can stall the drive we need for 21st century technologies.

Looking to help bridge the gap in new cleantech and biotech projects, is a proposed government-based solution called the Clean Energy Deployment Administration (CEDA). There is a house and senate version, as well as a house Green Bank bill to provide gap financing. Recently, over 42 companies, representing many industries and organizations, signed a letter to President Obama, supporting the Senate version, the “21st Century Energy Technology Deployment Act.”

Both the house and senate bills propose to create, as an office within the US Department of Energy (DOE), an administration which would be tasked with lending to risky cleantech projects for the purpose of bringing new technologies to market. CEDA would be the bridge needed to ensure the successful establishment of the green economy, by partnering with private investment to bring the funding needed to get these technologies to scale. Both versions capitalize the agency with $10 Billion (Senate) and $7.5 Billion (House), with an expected 10% loss reserve long term.

By helping a new technology move more effectively through the pipeline from idea to deployment, CEDA can substantially increase private sector investment in energy technology development and deployment. It can create a more successful US clean energy industry, with all the attendant economic and job creation benefits.

Who Benefits?

CEDA funding could be seen as beneficial for even the most unlikely corporations. Ted Horan is the Marketing and Business Development Manager for Hycrete, a company that sells a waterproof concrete. Hardly a company that springs to mind when we think about clean technologies, he recently commented on why Hycrete CEO, Richard Guinn, is a signatory on the letter to Obama:

 

“The allocation of funding for emerging clean energy technologies through CEDA is an important step in solving our energy and climate challenges. Companies on the cusp of large-scale commercial deployment will benefit greatly and help accelerate the adoption of clean energy practices throughout our economy.” 

 

In his opinion, the manufacturing and construction that is needed to push us out of a stagnating economy will be supported by innovation coming from the cleantech and biotech sectors. 

Google’s Dan Reicher, Director of Climate Change and Energy Initiatives, has been a supporter from the inception of CEDA. He has testified before both houses of Congress, and was a signatory on the letter to President Obama. Google’s interest in clean and renewable energies dates back several years. The company is actively involved in projects to cut costs of solar thermal and expand the use of plug-in vehicles, and has developed the Power Meter, a product which brings home energy management to anyone’s desktop-for free.

Financial support includes corporations like GE Energy Financial Services, Silicon Valley Venture Capital such as Kleiner, Perkins Caulfiled and Byers, and Mohr Davidow Ventures, and Energy Capital including Hudson Clean Energy and Element Partners.Can something like the senate version of CEDA leap the Valley of Death?

As Will Coleman from Mohr Davidow Ventures, said, “The Devil’s in the details.” The Senate version has two significant changes from previous proposals: an emphasis on breakthrough as opposed to conventional technologies, and political independence.

Neil Auerbach, Managing Partner, Hudson Clean Energy

The clean energy sector can be a dynamic growth engine for the US economy, but not without thoughtful government support for private capital formation. **[Government policy] promises to serve as a valuable bridging tool to accelerate private capital formation around companies facing the challenge, and can help ensure that the US remains at the forefront of the race for dominance in new energy technologies.

Breakthrough Technologies

Coleman said that “breakthrough” includes the first or second deployment of a new approach, not just the game changing science-fiction solution that finally brings us limitless energy at no cost. The Bloomberg New Energy white paper uses the term “First of Class.” Bringing solar efficiency up from 10% to 20%, or bringing manufacturing costs down by 50%, would be a breakthrough that would help us begin to compete with threats from China and India. Conventional technologies, those that are competing with existing commercialized projects, would get less emphasis.

Political Independence

Political independence is top of mind for many who spoke or provided an analysis of the bill. Michael Holman, analyst at Lux Research, expressed the strongest concerns that CEDA doesn’t focus enough on incentives to bring together innovative start-ups with larger established firms.

 

“The government itself taking on the responsibility of deciding what technologies to back isn’t likely to work-it’s an approach with a dreadful track record. That said, it is important for the federal government to lead – the current financing model for bringing new energy technologies to market is broken, and new approaches are badly needed.” 

 

For many, the senate bill has many advantages over the house bill, in providing for a decision making process that includes technologists and private sector experts. 

 

“I think both sides [of the aisle] understand this is an important program, and must enable the government to be flexible and employ a number of different approaches. The Senate version empowers CEDA to take a portfolio approach and manage risk over time, which I think is good. In the House bill, CEDA has to undergo the annual appropriation process, which runs the risk of politicizing every investment decision in isolation and before we have a chance to see the portfolio mature.” – Will Coleman, Mohr Davidow. 

 

Michael DeRosa, Managing Director of Element Partners added, 

 

“The framework must ensure the selection of practical technologies, optimization of risk/return for taxpayer dollars, and appropriate oversight for project selection and spending. **Above all, these policies must be designed with free markets principles in mind and not be subject to political process.” 

 

If history is any indication, rarely are those in the middle of game-changing events aware of their role in what will one day be well-known for their sweeping influence. But what we can see clearly now is the gap between idea and commercial maturity. CEDA certainly offers some hope that we may yet see the cleantech age grow up into adulthood. But will we act quickly enough before all of the momentum and hard work that has brought us this far falls flat as other countries take leadership roles, leaving us in the dust? 

THE GREEN ECONOMY is an information company, providing timely, credible facts and analyses on companies adapting to meet the challenges of a green future.

Markets are in transition; customers are demanding a higher quality of life, such as clean water and energy. These pressures are affecting commodity prices, access to markets, the nature of innovation and more. At the same time, infrastructure (water, energy, transportation), is becoming more – not less – localized. These changes mean opportunities and demand new partnerships to deliver increasingly complex solutions. THE GREEN ECONOMY tells those stories.

Impacts of Information Technology on Society in the New Century

In the past few decades there has been a revolution in computing and communications, and all indications are that technological progress and use of information technology will continue at a rapid pace. Accompanying and supporting the dramatic increases in the power and use of new information technologies has been the declining cost of communications as a result of both technological improvements and increased competition. According to Moore’s law the processing power of microchips is doubling every 18 months. These advances present many significant opportunities but also pose major challenges. Today, innovations in information technology are having wide-ranging effects across numerous domains of society, and policy makers are acting on issues involving economic productivity, intellectual property rights, privacy protection, and affordability of and access to information. Choices made now will have long lasting consequences, and attention must be paid to their social and economic impacts.

One of the most significant outcomes of the progress of information technology is probably electronic commerce over the Internet, a new way of conducting business. Though only a few years old, it may radically alter economic activities and the social environment. Already, it affects such large sectors as communications, finance and retail trade and might expand to areas such as education and health services. It implies the seamless application of information and communication technology along the entire value chain of a business that is conducted electronically.

The impacts of information technology and electronic commerce on business models, commerce, market structure, workplace, labour market, education, private life and society as a whole.

1. Business Models, Commerce and Market Structure

One important way in which information technology is affecting work is by reducing the importance of distance. In many industries, the geographic distribution of work is changing significantly. For instance, some software firms have found that they can overcome the tight local market for software engineers by sending projects to India or other nations where the wages are much lower. Furthermore, such arrangements can take advantage of the time differences so that critical projects can be worked on nearly around the clock. Firms can outsource their manufacturing to other nations and rely on telecommunications to keep marketing, R&D, and distribution teams in close contact with the manufacturing groups. Thus the technology can enable a finer division of labour among countries, which in turn affects the relative demand for various skills in each nation. The technology enables various types of work and employment to be decoupled from one another. Firms have greater freedom to locate their economic activities, creating greater competition among regions in infrastructure, labour, capital, and other resource markets. It also opens the door for regulatory arbitrage: firms can increasingly choose which tax authority and other regulations apply.

Computers and communication technologies also promote more market-like forms of production and distribution. An infrastructure of computing and communication technology, providing 24-hour access at low cost to almost any kind of price and product information desired by buyers, will reduce the informational barriers to efficient market operation. This infrastructure might also provide the means for effecting real-time transactions and make intermediaries such as sales clerks, stock brokers and travel agents, whose function is to provide an essential information link between buyers and sellers, redundant. Removal of intermediaries would reduce the costs in the production and distribution value chain. The information technologies have facilitated the evolution of enhanced mail order retailing, in which goods can be ordered quickly by using telephones or computer networks and then dispatched by suppliers through integrated transport companies that rely extensively on computers and communication technologies to control their operations. Nonphysical goods, such as software, can be shipped electronically, eliminating the entire transport channel. Payments can be done in new ways. The result is disintermediation throughout the distribution channel, with cost reduction, lower end-consumer prices, and higher profit margins.

The impact of information technology on the firms’ cost structure can be best illustrated on the electronic commerce example. The key areas of cost reduction when carrying out a sale via electronic commerce rather than in a traditional store involve physical establishment, order placement and execution, customer support, strong, inventory carrying, and distribution. Although setting up and maintaining an e-commerce web site might be expensive, it is certainly less expensive to maintain such a storefront than a physical one because it is always open, can be accessed by millions around the globe, and has few variable costs, so that it can scale up to meet the demand. By maintaining one ‘store’ instead of several, duplicate inventory costs are eliminated. In addition, e-commerce is very effective at reducing the costs of attracting new customers, because advertising is typically cheaper than for other media and more targeted. Moreover, the electronic interface allows e-commerce merchants to check that an order is internally consistent and that the order, receipt, and invoice match. Through e-commerce, firms are able to move much of their customer support on line so that customers can access databases or manuals directly. This significantly cuts costs while generally improving the quality of service. E-commerce shops require far fewer, but high-skilled, employees. E-commerce also permits savings in inventory carrying costs. The faster the input can be ordered and delivered, the less the need for a large inventory. The impact on costs associated with decreased inventories is most pronounced in industries where the product has a limited shelf life (e.g. bananas), is subject to fast technological obsolescence or price declines (e.g. computers), or where there is a rapid flow of new products (e.g. books, music). Although shipping costs can increase the cost of many products purchased via electronic commerce and add substantially to the final price, distribution costs are significantly reduced for digital products such as financial services, software, and travel, which are important e-commerce segments.

Although electronic commerce causes the disintermediation of some intermediaries, it creates greater dependency on others and also some entirely new intermediary functions. Among the intermediary services that could add costs to e-commerce transactions are advertising, secure online payment, and delivery. The relative ease of becoming an e-commerce merchant and setting up stores results in such a huge number of offerings that consumers can easily be overwhelmed. This increases the importance of using advertising to establish a brand name and thus generate consumer familiarity and trust. For new e-commerce start-ups, this process can be expensive and represents a significant transaction cost. The openness, global reach, and lack of physical clues that are inherent characteristics of e-commerce also make it vulnerable to fraud and thus increase certain costs for e-commerce merchants as compared to traditional stores. New techniques are being developed to protect the use of credit cards in e-commerce transactions, but the need for greater security and user verification leads to increased costs. A key feature of e-commerce is the convenience of having purchases delivered directly. In the case of tangibles, such as books, this incurs delivery costs, which cause prices to rise in most cases, thereby negating many of the savings associated with e-commerce and substantially adding to transaction costs.

With the Internet, e-commerce is rapidly expanding into a fast-moving, open global market with an ever-increasing number of participants. The open and global nature of e-commerce is likely to increase market size and change market structure, both in terms of the number and size of players and the way in which players compete on international markets. Digitized products can cross the border in real time, consumers can shop 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and firms are increasingly faced with international online competition. The Internet is helping to enlarge existing markets by cutting through many of the distribution and marketing barriers that can prevent firms from gaining access to foreign markets. E-commerce lowers information and transaction costs for operating on overseas markets and provides a cheap and efficient way to strengthen customer-supplier relations. It also encourages companies to develop innovative ways of advertising, delivering and supporting their product and services. While e-commerce on the Internet offers the potential for global markets, certain factors, such as language, transport costs, local reputation, as well as differences in the cost and ease of access to networks, attenuate this potential to a greater or lesser extent.

2. Workplace and Labour Market

Computers and communication technologies allow individuals to communicate with one another in ways complementary to traditional face-to-face, telephonic, and written modes. They enable collaborative work involving distributed communities of actors who seldom, if ever, meet physically. These technologies utilize communication infrastructures that are both global and always up, thus enabling 24-hour activity and asynchronous as well as synchronous interactions among individuals, groups, and organizations. Social interaction in organizations will be affected by use of computers and communication technologies. Peer-to-peer relations across department lines will be enhanced through sharing of information and coordination of activities. Interaction between superiors and subordinates will become more tense because of social control issues raised by the use of computerized monitoring systems, but on the other hand, the use of e-mail will lower the barriers to communications across different status levels, resulting in more uninhibited communications between supervisor and subordinates.

That the importance of distance will be reduced by computers and communication technology also favours telecommuting, and thus, has implications for the residence patterns of the citizens. As workers find that they can do most of their work at home rather than in a centralized workplace, the demand for homes in climatically and physically attractive regions would increase. The consequences of such a shift in employment from the suburbs to more remote areas would be profound. Property values would rise in the favoured destinations and fall in the suburbs. Rural, historical, or charming aspects of life and the environment in the newly attractive areas would be threatened. Since most telecommuters would be among the better educated and higher paid, the demand in these areas for high-income and high-status services like gourmet restaurants and clothing boutiques would increase. Also would there be an expansion of services of all types, creating and expanding job opportunities for the local population.

By reducing the fixed cost of employment, widespread telecommuting should make it easier for individuals to work on flexible schedules, to work part time, to share jobs, or to hold two or more jobs simultaneously. Since changing employers would not necessarily require changing one’s place of residence, telecommuting should increase job mobility and speed career advancement. This increased flexibility might also reduce job stress and increase job satisfaction. Since job stress is a major factor governing health there may be additional benefits in the form of reduced health costs and mortality rates. On the other hand one might also argue that technologies, by expanding the number of different tasks that are expected of workers and the array of skills needed to perform these tasks, might speed up work and increase the level of stress and time pressure on workers.

A question that is more difficult to be answered is about the impacts that computers and communications might have on employment. The ability of computers and communications to perform routine tasks such as bookkeeping more rapidly than humans leads to concern that people will be replaced by computers and communications. The response to this argument is that even if computers and communications lead to the elimination of some workers, other jobs will be created, particularly for computer professionals, and that growth in output will increase overall employment. It is more likely that computers and communications will lead to changes in the types of workers needed for different occupations rather than to changes in total employment.

A number of industries are affected by electronic commerce. The distribution sector is directly affected, as e-commerce is a way of supplying and delivering goods and services. Other industries, indirectly affected, are those related to information and communication technology (the infrastructure that enables e-commerce), content-related industries (entertainment, software), transactions-related industries (financial sector, advertising, travel, transport). eCommerce might also create new markets or extend market reach beyond traditional borders. Enlarging the market will have a positive effect on jobs. Another important issue relates to inter linkages among activities affected by e-commerce. Expenditure for e-commerce-related intermediate goods and services will create jobs indirectly, on the basis of the volume of electronic transactions and their effect on prices, costs and productivity. The convergence of media, telecommunication and computing technologies is creating a new integrated supply chain for the production and delivery of multimedia and information content. Most of the employment related to e-commerce around the content industries and communication infrastructure such as the Internet.

Jobs are both created and destroyed by technology, trade, and organizational change. These processes also underlie changes in the skill composition of employment. Beyond the net employment gains or losses brought about by these factors, it is apparent that workers with different skill levels will be affected differently. E-commerce is certainly driving the demand for IT professionals but it also requires IT expertise to be coupled with strong business application skills, thereby generating demand for a flexible, multi-skilled work force. There is a growing need for increased integration of Internet front-end applications with enterprise operations, applications and back-end databases. Many of the IT skill requirements needed for Internet support can be met by low-paid IT workers who can deal with the organizational services needed for basic web page programming. However, wide area networks, competitive web sites, and complex network applications require much more skill than a platform-specific IT job. Since the skills required for e-commerce are rare and in high demand, e-commerce might accelerate the up skilling trend in many countries by requiring high-skilled computer scientists to replace low-skilled information clerks, cashiers and market salespersons.

3. Education

Advances in information technology will affect the craft of teaching by complementing rather than eliminating traditional classroom instruction. Indeed the effective instructor acts in a mixture of roles. In one role the instructor is a supplier of services to the students, who might be regarded as its customers. But the effective instructor occupies another role as well, as a supervisor of students, and plays a role in motivating, encouraging, evaluating, and developing students. For any topic there will always be a small percentage of students with the necessary background, motivation, and self-discipline to learn from self-paced workbooks or computer assisted instruction. For the majority of students, however, the presence of a live instructor will continue to be far more effective than a computer assisted counterpart in facilitating positive educational outcomes. The greatest potential for new information technology lies in improving the productivity of time spent outside the classroom. Making solutions to problem sets and assigned reading materials available on the Internet offers a lot of convenience. E-mail vastly simplifies communication between students and faculty and among students who may be engaged in group projects. Advances in information technology will affect the craft of teaching by complementing rather than eliminating traditional classroom instruction. Indeed the effective instructor acts in a mixture of roles. In one role the instructor is a supplier of services to the students, who might be regarded as its customers. But the effective instructor occupies another role as well, as a supervisor of students, and plays a role in motivating, encouraging, evaluating, and developing students. For any topic there will always be a small percentage of students with the necessary background, motivation, and self-discipline to learn from self-paced workbooks or computer assisted instruction. For the majority of students, however, the presence of a live instructor will continue to be far more effective than a computer assisted counterpart in facilitating positive educational outcomes. The greatest potential for new information technology lies in improving the productivity of time spent outside the classroom. Making solutions to problem sets and assigned reading materials available on the Internet offers a lot of convenience. E-mail vastly simplifies communication between students and faculty and among students who may be engaged in group projects.

Although distance learning has existed for some time, the Internet makes possible a large expansion in coverage and better delivery of instruction. Text can be combined with audio/ video, and students can interact in real time via e-mail and discussion groups. Such technical improvements coincide with a general demand for retraining by those who, due to work and family demands, cannot attend traditional courses. Distance learning via the Internet is likely to complement existing schools for children and university students, but it could have more of a substitution effect for continuing education programmes. For some degree programmes, high-prestige institutions could use their reputation to attract students who would otherwise attend a local facility. Owing to the Internet’s ease of access and convenience for distance learning, overall demand for such programmes will probably expand, leading to growth in this segment of e-commerce.

As shown in the previous section, high level skills are vital in a technology-based and knowledge intensive economy. Changes associated with rapid technological advances in industry have made continual upgrading of professional skills an economic necessity. The goal of lifelong learning can only be accomplished by reinforcing and adapting existing systems of learning, both in public and private sectors. The demand for education and training concerns the full range of modern technology. Information technologies are uniquely capable of providing ways to meet this demand. Online training via the Internet ranges from accessing self-study courses to complete electronic classrooms. These computer-based training programmes provide flexibility in skills acquisition and are more affordable and relevant than more traditional seminars and courses.

4. Private Life and Society

Increasing representation of a wide variety of content in digital form results in easier and cheaper duplication and distribution of information. This has a mixed effect on the provision of content. On the one hand, content can be distributed at a lower unit cost. On the other hand, distribution of content outside of channels that respect intellectual property rights can reduce the incentives of creators and distributors to produce and make content available in the first place. Information technology raises a host of questions about intellectual property protection and new tools and regulations have to be developed in order to solve this problem.

Many issues also surround free speech and regulation of content on the Internet, and there continue to be calls for mechanisms to control objectionable content. However it is very difficult to find a sensible solution. Dealing with indecent material involves understanding not only the views on such topics but also their evolution over time. Furthermore, the same technology that allows for content altering with respect to decency can be used to filter political speech and to restrict access to political material. Thus, if censorship does not appear to be an option, a possible solution might be labelling. The idea is that consumers will be better informed in their decisions to avoid objectionable content.

The rapid increase in computing and communications power has raised considerable concern about privacy both in the public and private sector. Decreases in the cost of data storage and information processing make it likely that it will become practicable for both government and private data-mining enterprises to collect detailed dossiers on all citizens. Nobody knows who currently collects data about individuals, how this data is used and shared or how this data might be misused. These concerns lower the consumers’ trust in online institutions and communication and, thus, inhibit the development of electronic commerce. A technological approach to protecting privacy might by cryptography although it might be claimed that cryptography presents a serious barrier to criminal investigations.

It is popular wisdom that people today suffer information overload. A lot of the information available on the Internet is incomplete and even incorrect. People spend more and more of their time absorbing irrelevant information just because it is available and they think they should know about it. Therefore, it must be studied how people assign credibility to the information they collect in order to invent and develop new credibility systems to help consumers to manage the information overload.

Technological progress inevitably creates dependence on technology. Indeed the creation of vital infrastructure ensures dependence on that infrastructure. As surely as the world is now dependent on its transport, telephone, and other infrastructures, it will be dependent on the emerging information infrastructure. Dependence on technology can bring risks. Failures in the technological infrastructure can cause the collapse of economic and social functionality. Blackouts of long-distance telephone service, credit data systems, and electronic funds transfer systems, and other such vital communications and information processing services would undoubtedly cause widespread economic disruption. However, it is probably impossible to avoid technological dependence. Therefore, what must be considered is the exposure brought from dependence on technologies with a recognizable probability of failure, no workable substitute at hand, and high costs as a result of failure.

The ongoing computing and communications revolution has numerous economic and social impacts on modern society and requires serious social science investigation in order to manage its risks and dangers. Such work would be valuable for both social policy and technology design. Decisions have to be taken carefully. Many choices being made now will be costly or difficult to modify in the future.